Ido Izhaki – Selected papers

Nutritional ecology of birds

Yellow-vented bulbul

Pycnonotus xanthopygos

 Mediterranean buckthorn (Rhamnus alaternus)







Izhaki, I. and Safriel, U.N. 1989. Why are there so few exclusive frugivorous birds? Experiments on fruit digestibility. Oikos 54: 23-32. PDF file.

Izhaki, I. and Safriel, U.N. 1990. Weight losses due to exclusive fruit diet - interpretation and evolutionary implications: a reply to Mack and Sedinger. Oikos 57: 140-142. PDF file.

Izhaki, I. 1992. A comparative analysis of nutritional quality of mixed and exclusive fruit diets forYellow-vented bulbuls. Condor 94: 912-923. PDF file.

Izhaki, I. 1993. Influence of nonprotein nitrogen on estimation of protein from total nitrogen in fleshy fruits. Journal of Chemical Ecology 19: 2605-2615. PDF file.

Izhaki, I. 1998. Essential amino acid composition of fleshy fruits versus maintenance requirements of passerine birds. Journal of Chemical Ecology 24: 1333-1345. PDF file.

Korine, C., Izhaki, I. and Arad, Z. 1998. Comparison of fruit syndromes between the Egyptian fruit-bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) and birds in East Mediterranean habitats. Acta Oecologica 19: 147-153. PDF file.

Shmueli, M., Izhaki, I.  , Arieli, A. and Arad, Z. 2000. Energy requirements of migrating Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus. Ibis 142: 208-216. PDF file.

Shmueli, M., Izhaki, I. and Arad, Z. 2000. The physiological state of captive and migrating Great White Pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus) revealed by their blood chemistry. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (A) 125: 25-32. PDF file.

Izhaki, I. 2002. Emodin - a secondary metabolite with multiple ecological functions in higher plants (a review). New Phytologist 155: 205-217. PDF file.

Izhaki, I. 2002. The role of fruit traits in determining fruit removal in East Mediterranean ecosystems. In: Levey, D.J., Silva, W.R. and M. Galetti, (Eds.), Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. CAB International Publishing, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, pp. 161-175 (refereed). PDF file.

Banko, P.C., Cipollini, M.L., Breton, G.W., Paulk, E., Wink, M. and Izhaki, I. 2002.  Seed chemistry of Sophora chrysophylla (Mamane) in relation to the diet of the specialist avian seed predator Loxioides bailleui (Palila) in Hawaii. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28: 1393-1410. PDF file.

Izhaki, I., Tsahar, E., Paluy, I. and Friedman, J. 2002.  Within population variation and interrelationships between morphology, nutritional content, and secondary compounds of Rhamnus alaternus fruits. New Phytologist 156: 217-223. PDF file.

Tsahar, E., Friedman, J. and Izhaki, I. 2002. Impact of fruit removal and seed predation of a secondary metabolite, emodin, in Rhamnus alaternus fruit pulp. Oikos 99: 291-300. PDF file.

Tsahar, E., Friedman J. and Izhaki, I. 2003. Secondary metabolite emodin increases food assimilation efficiency of Yellow-vented bulbuls (Pycnonotus xanthopygos). Auk 120: 411-417. PDF file.

Tsahar, E., Martínez del Rio, C., Izhaki, I. and Arad Z. 2005. Can birds be ammonotelic? Nitrogen balance and excretion in two frugivores. Journal of Experimental Biology 208: 1025-1034. PDF file.

Tsahar, E., Martínez del Rio, C., Arad, Z., Joy, J.P. and Izhaki, I. 2005. Are the low protein requirements of nectarivorous birds the consequence of the sugary and watery diet? - A test with an omnivore. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 78: 239-245. PDF file.

Tadmor-Melamed, H.,  Markman, S.,  Arieli, A.,  Distl, M., Wink, M. and Izhaki  I. 2004. Limited ability of Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea) to cope with pyridine alkaloids in nectar of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca). Functional Ecology 18: 844-850. PDF file.

Markman, S., Tadmor-Melamed, H.,  Arieli, A.  and Izhaki  I. 2006. Sex differences in food intake and digestive constraints in a nectarivorous bird. Journal of Experimental Biology 209: 1058- 1063. PDF file.

Tsahar, E., Arad, Z., Izhaki, I. and Guglielmo C.G. 2006. The relationship between uric acid and its oxidative product allantoin: a potential indicator for the evaluation of oxidative stress in birds.  Journal of Comparative Physiology – B 176: 653-661. PDF file.

Tsahar, E., Arad, Z., Izhaki, I. and  Martínez del Rio, C. 2006. Do nectar- and fruit-eating birds have lower nitrogen requirement? An allometric test. Auk 123:1004-1012. PDF file.

Tsahar, E., wolf, N., Izhaki, I. Arad, Z. and Martínez del Rio, C. 2008. Dietary protein influences the rate of 15N incorporation in blood cells and plasma of Yellow-vented bulbuls (Pycnonotus xanthopygos). Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 459-465. PDF file.

Tsurim, I., Sapir, N.,  Belmaker, J.,  Shanni, I., Izhaki, I., Wojciechowski, M. S., Karasov W. H. and Pinshow, B. 2008.  Drinking water boosts food intake rate, body mass increase and fat accumulation in migratory blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla). Oecologia 156: 1432-1439. PDF file.



Can bird be ammonotelic? Nitrogen balance and excretion in passerine birds.


Uric acid – a waste product or a beneficial metabolite?